Virtual Urban

Marina Grzinic, Ljubljana
Metelkova City in Ljubljana City and Other Projects: Actions in Zones of Indifference

Metelkova is the name of the street in Ljubljana, Slovenia, where until 1991, the army barracks complex of the so called former Yugoslav army resided. After the 10 days war in Slovenia in June 1991 the Yugoslav army had to leave Slovenia. The new generation of underground hard core punk activists and independent artists and groups asked the City Council of Ljubljana in 1991 to give this empty military complex to the independent art and culture organisations of Ljubljana. After promising to do so, the Ljubljana City Council secretly started to destroy the complex with the goal to build a commercial centre instead. The art and cultural activists, intellectuals and artists therefore squatted in the place that is still a site of battle between the independent art and cultural scene and the Ljubljana City Council.

First Metelkova was run by the association or a large group of artists and activists called Network or Action Committee for Metelkova. This net established a unique demand for a different restructuring of our social life and local cultural world in the begging of the nineties in Ljubljana. The Net was a programme, a mobilisation of artists and above all the demand for making architectural/urban arrangements and social/cultural alterations in the city of Ljubljana in the future.

It is known that the Ljubljana City Council cut water and electricity in 1993 trying to prevent the cultural programs and trying to force the activists, intellectuals and artists to leave the squatted Metelkova place. Today Metelkova centre bears the name of Metelkova city as a powerful sign of the historical facts and battles with the City Council and as a cynically powerful sign of its proper position.

The process of establish Metelkova City was not the action of an unknown ?crowd?, but an act of re-articulation of space by a large group of artists and activists who endeavoured to materialise different systems of culture(s) in the city of Ljubljana, and as well as, to emphasise the possibility of revitalising and integrating existing subculture or alternative systems and create new also (dis)- functional systems of cultural and social action in Ljubljana.

The Metelkova city can be perceived as a powerful sign of the new distribution of meaning to the so-called voids in the modern cities of today. Ljubljana is today a capital town that is totalized with a process of a middle class formal architectural purification and which shows signs of the most upgrading historical and inter geographical amnesia, where the things, places, facts, structures are forgotten after a minute. It is very easy to live in Ljubljana and therefore even easier to symbolically die.

As was told in a lecture by Marjetica Potrc, architect and sculptor from Ljubljana (at her solo presentation at the Gallery Skuc, Ljubljana in March 2000) it is possible to detect in the old historical city centres (in Ljubljana, but as well as in Munster, Vienna or Munchen, etc.), the so called empty zones or voids ? complex structures of empty buildings, or areas in the city without the formal past and designed map location. These symbolically structured empty zones are the bearers of surplus meaning. This can be perceived in a difference to the eighties where the meaning of the European historical cities was produced and displayed by beautiful architecture or known historical buildings and places. The same but opposite process is going on in the so called Third world, in South America, Africa, etc. The favelas in Latin America, for example in Brazil, present wildly growing periphery city zones without formal structures or any kind of infrastructures, but the favelas are those which bring and generate meaning for real life, with their almost baroque rest of dirtiness and wildly organised existentially.

The cancer process of the favelas, methastasing uncontrolled in the space and with deregulated infrastructures or no structures, are the new zones of meaning, errors, battles of surviving and entropy.

In the cities, especially in the so called historical cities of the old humanistic Europe, these zones, voids are generated and produced and on the other side also very skilfully hidden by city authority; the empty zones or I called them a-topical city topos or voids are not located (they are a-located locations) in the official maps of the city, as they exist in a invisible way, erased from official maps of the city; the city administration feel ashamed and at the same time terrified by this new voids and their meaning of new political formless forms in the city.

In the city of Metelkova Joze Barsi (artist from Ljubljana)installed in January 2000 a toilet in the ?public space? of Metelkova city, a toilet as monument. This also means that the functionality of cities and their formal spaces changed radically. So we can detect a process of re-location of the formation of a-topical punctum in the city , and this has a little to do with presentation but has a lot to do with re-location and re-articulation of the voids in the urban space.

We have to pose a question that is not only effectively incorporated and bound to the psychical space of the city, but which represent the condition sine qua non of each and every paradigm of the urban in the nineties: What is the new urban monument of the nineties? According to Mary Jane Jacob, an American critic and theorist who wrote in the nineties an exhaustive study on public art in Chicago with special emphasis on the activity of the Sculpture Chicago organisation and its last project Culture in Action, I can argue that the new urban monument within the Specific Slovenian context has changed and it is increasingly assuming the image of the moment and movement. Metelkova is one of such moment and movement.

With Metelkova a trajectory was made towards social topicality from the passive arrangement of buildings in the public environment or the simple renewal of the physical environment to processes of living and producing, that can be coined, referring to Mary Jane Jacob, as ?Culture in action?. More than representing a form of expanding the audience in the urban ethos, Metelkova replaces it - the entire specific community of Metelkova is at the same time a creator and user, a city within a city.

Metelkova can be seen also as a sign against the symbolic institute of the city defined as dormitory. I can say that the city due to its socialist context has been sleeping too long and as well as its institutions. Metelkova refers to the city urban dilemmas and to the city as an open territory.

Metelkova can be useful as a paradigm in a context of the Slovenian cultural policy in general. Analysing the methods, political decisions and actions of the city administration concerning relationships between the project and the different artistic, cultural, political and social structures (institutions, associations and media) in Slovenia. Among different analysis one of the most important was to establish a parallel between the project and the Reports on Slovenian Cultural Policy undertaken by a team of European experts and written by Michael Wimmer. This excellent and archetypal report by European experts drew a very precise picture of the characteristics of the so called cultural policy situation in Slovenia. The first conclusion reached was that Slovenia had no real cultural policy, (i.e. one with a clear programme platform). The second most important characteristic was the ?over - institutionalisation? of the field of culture in Slovenia. The report concluded that Slovenian cultural and artistic life is largely ruled and consumed entirely by national cultural institutions in which in most of the cases employees? appointment is for life. In this way the institutions present a specific but hierarchically powerful element in the way culture is perceived, distributed, relocated and practised in Slovenia. The role of the Ministry of Culture was perceived in the report as largely existing to satisfy the wishes of the national cultural institutions and their directors. The report also highlighted the completely chaotic relationship between the city level and the level of the Slovenian state in dealing, developing and realising projects in the field of culture.

It is not difficult to perceive how it was possible for the municipal administration to develop their authoritarian methods against Metelkova. The position of the alternative groups from the eighties was also exaggerated. They were ?demonised? and portrayed as a real threat to the historical city, but this was nothing more than a carnivalesque game. The European Report comments that an independent Slovenia succeeded in completely paralysing the ?alternative arts culture? that had enjoyed such a fruitful existence in the eighties.

Another tendency or direction was individuated by the experts in the cultural and artistic strategies supported by the Slovenian Ministry of Culture. A turn towards the direction of traditional art and culture or what is understood as the high European humanistic tradition in art and culture. For Slovenia this represents a radical turning point. This tendency -- is radically different from the flourishing modern and experimental art and cultural productions in the Slovenia of the eighties. According to the European report, the imaginary humanist art tradition is the way in which art and culture (i.e. against modern and experimental production) is redirect in Slovenia.

Deep in the socialist period the largest public project in the urban surroundings were the socialist parades and celebrations of anniversaries of victories and party congress. And who says than that socialism did not have its own interactive mass media forerunners, and this moreover in real time!? A whole history of the Ljubljana alternative or underground scene came through the eighties. By consciously entering non-institutional environments (underground?s clubs) and by encouraging a whole line of artistic and social practices (graffiti was at that time, in the eighties still a language of the stratified urban community and the voice of marginal groups) and investigating interior and exterior public environments, it opened a whole range of issues, that is possible to re-address as part of the topic of talking cities. The underground movement recognised the city of Ljubljana as urbs when it first experienced that behind the completely topologically closed city structure, explosions of artistic production and social movements would burst forth. The eighties also confirmed that we will have to face the fact that Ljubljana deserves the title of an urban topos, because it is within the underground that the ?coming out? of Ljubljana homosexuals and the constitution of gay culture in the nineties took place.

In reference to this history we cannot overlook the projects in private residencies (the performance named The Retro-Garde Hinkemmann Happening b the Theatre of the Sisters of Scipio Nasica took place in 1984 in a private apartment , and as well the exhibition Was ist kunst by the group IRWIN in 1984 was displayed in a private space) -- projects with which the public assumed its so skilfully concealed private image and vice versa. In the post-socialist nineties the idea of an omnipresent and at the same time absent telematic society was virtualised by the Irwin NSK Sate in Time project. Firstly the NSK State in Time implies the absence of any kind of physical territory and secondly, the NSK State in time operates with the virtualisation and transference of national elements in a wholly temporal form in which the cause and effect are not spatial but linked through information. And, the public within this ?state? has attained a wholly new autonomy and a new form of segregation at the same time (instead of a ticket, it was necessary to arrange a passport and obtain a valid visa to enter the NSK state in Berlin in 1994 in the Berlin Volksbuhne).

Here we can see the elements of the so-called post ? socialist decontrolling of space, a step that can follow the so called post-modernist decontrolling of space, as explained by Peter Weibel. Weibel places the post-modern decontrolling of space opposite to the so called modernist fetish of totality and supervision of artistic output.

For him in the first degree of the modernist project the whole idea of space is subsumed in the transfer from one social space to another. The second degree is the state in which most (post)avant-garde art is today : external operations become the internal structures of the work themselves. And the third degree is the one which most radically sets the comprehension and operation of parameters such as the city, position, presentation and public in culture and art. Weibel calls this degree an observer/viewer oriented approach. In contrast to the first two approaches which, as Weibel stressed, throughout demonstrate that it is the social context which constructs the meaning of a work, it is the observer/viewer oriented approach that no longer shows, but simply incorporates or integrates the social context into the construct of the work itself. The post-socialist step in decontrolling space is going even further develops strategies of absolute fictionalisation of the city.

I would like to give some other examples, as well from Ljubljana or by artists from Ljubljana, besides the already discusses Metelkova city in Ljubljana, and the work of Marjetica Potrc and Joze Barsi:

*Dragan Zivadinov?s Noordung Cosmokinetic Cabinet Theatre

* Macrolab by Marko Peljhan at

*Irwin - NSK State in time at

On December 15 1999, Dragan Zivadinov?s Noordung Cosmokinetic Cabinet Theatre performed a parabolic art project named Noordung Biomechanics in the Russian cosmonaut training aircraft IL ? 76MDK, registered RA 78770, in the skies above Moscow (at 6660 m); the aircraft was operated by the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training facility, which is based in Star City, just outside Moscow.

Just a quick note: theatre director Dragan Zivadinov conceived the Retrogarde Theatre in the early 1980?s (as part of the Neue Slowenische Kunst movement) and it went through several stages of metamorphosis. The theatre was in the mid 1980?s re-named the RED PILOT COSMOKINETIC THEATRE by Zivadinov and in the 1990's it took the name of THE NOORDUNG COSMOKINETIC THEATRE. Dragan Zivadinov Noordung Cosmokinetic Cabinet Theatre performed its Noordung Biomechanics at zero gravity, researching revolutionary changes, which take place in the human body in a situation of a weightless theatre. Zivadinov Noordung Biomechanics analyses contemporary theatre and performance phenomena through - in relation to or against - the plethora of new technological and electronic means. The investigation is developed through an intersection of theatre, body, mobility, subjectivity, and mechanics, with more general social phenomena and their realities and especially with contemporary theories of physiological changes of human skeleton at zero gravity. Zivadinov inspects the kinetical conceptualisations of new technologies and elaborates on issues of simulation, simulacrum and the cyborgs/cybernetics/cybernauts. The contemporary time-and-space paradigm takes on a central role in his Biomechanics Theatre, and so does the problem of the ?subject? as an actor and performer in the electronic era.

With Zivadinov, the actor has become a terminal, final location of numerous networks, placed within global structures of data webs, into the current world of cybernetic space. In the weightless theatre actors are not merely theorised, but also fabricated by means of (spacecraft) machines.

In his seminal book Terminal Identity, Scott Bukatman defined terminal culture or cyberspace as the era in which the digital has substituted the tactile. He further argues (using Jean Baudrillard?s terms) that physical action in terminal situations ? and what else is the zero gravity situation - returns as a strategy of communication, combining tactile and tactical simulation. The visual and rhetorical recognition of terminal space therefore prepares the subject for a more direct, bodily engagement (Bukatman). Moreover, cyberspace is grounded upon or concentrates on the cybernaut. Timothy Leary reminds us that; ?The word cybernetic-person or cybernaut returns us to the original meaning of ?pilot? and puts the self-reliant person back in the loop?. The construction of a new cyberspatial subject thus relies upon a narration of perception followed by kinesis (Bukatman), piloting, mobile distancing, travelling, gravitating.

This is exactly the recapitulation of the development of the subject/actor generated by Dragan Zivadinov?s process of physiognomic reconstitution at zero gravity. Similarly to Zivadinov, or vice versa, in order to constitute electronic space as a paradigm or a matrix that is susceptible to an act of comprehension, writers such as Jean Baudrillard or William Gibson also rely on metaphors and actions of human perception based on mobility.

We can say that Dragan Zivadinov?s preliminary emphasis on the primary activity of perception and mechanics mobility corresponds to the paradigmatic strategies of visualisation, which are shared by narrative, scientific, and philosophical elaboration of the electronic space and at the same time transcends it.

Biomechanics refers to a process that combines forms meaning life with mechanics; Biomechanics is about motion and action of forces on bodies. The word Biomechanics can not be found in the Webster?s New World dictionary, but is strongly present in the Russian tradition from the theatre to physiology. In this context, I can state that what is for the developed ?West? connected with technology and transformation, in the terminology of genetic engineering, the Russians know as Biomechanics. It is possible in fact to think about Biomechanics as the new artistic genetic engineering. The primary domain of Biomechanics is physiology, that is the science dealing with the functions and vital processes of living organisms and mechanical movements. Biomechanics, as first researched by Leonardo da Vinci (1452- 1519), is used today widely in military medicine. Vsevolod Emiljevich Mejerholjd (1874 ?1942) with his ideas of the Revolutionary theatre, where the theatre is perceived as a mobile space with constructivists elements, introduced biomechanical elements in the theatre as sites of dramatically performed actions.

According to multiple references to the social, the political and the physiological, Zivadinov differentiates three stages in Biomechanics, with respective technological gadgets, political references, and body parts.

For Zivadinov it is possible to distinguish 3 periods of biomechanics and activity in space or a production of a simulated space and agency: Historical Biomechanics (until the beginning of the Second World War) Telepresence Biomechanics (which started with the Second World War, and, I will add, is connected with an increasing expansion of research in rocket technology and astronautics) Cosmic Biomechanics (inaugurated by Zivadinov?s parabolic art project Noordung Biomechanics)

I will draw a parallel between these three periods in Biomechanics and the differentiation and continuities between the optical, electronic and digital technologies and images; I will tie them to transversal and horizontal connections between different technological, historical and scientific periods and discoveries. The historical Biomechanics can be seen as the period of optical technologies; radio is the most important medium and the body of an actor participating in historical Biomechanic performances is the body of an acrobat. In the Telepresence Biomechanics television became the central apparatus, and it is thus not difficult to see the connection with our proposed electronic technologies and images period. The actor changes from an acrobat into an experimental body (possible examples, precisely in the order I put them, are: Cindy Sherman, Dump Type, Stelarc, Orlan). In the case of Cindy Sherman, the body is a screen, used for all sorts of changes, for the complete masquerading of identity; a Dumb Type actor is not a theatre character, it is a life character; the leading actor in Dumb Type was an Aids bomb, he himself was the reservoir of the virus; he was the virus and the potential form of illness that is always continually reminding us of his virus potentiality that waits to become a reality. Stelarc is the potential cyborg (muscles manipulated through the Internet), Orlan on the other hand a pre-final form of a cyborg, a modern Frankenstein, that reconsiders cosmetology much more seriously than cosmology.

If art poses, according to Bukatman, the enigma of the body, than the enigma of technique poses the enigma of art.

Computer, that is ?intelligent television ?for Zivadinov is the path to the third stage. Cosmic Biomechanics implies the politics of the digital machine; this is a path from the speaking head linearity TV to 3D living form at zero space gravity. Noordung Biomechanics Theatre is all about science of motion and action of forces on bodies. The project is about different bodies in parallel worlds. Physical bodies, sexual bodies, social bodies, media bodies and political bodies. Each territory produces a border body. In Cosmic Biomechanics the change is from muscle to skeleton. The Russian astronaut Krikaljov who spent more than a year in cosmos in a zero gravity ambient, showed this clearly: he experienced, according to Zivadinov, changes in his bones and skeleton structure. In Cosmic Biomechanics the actors are cosmonauts. And as Zivadinov argues, at zero gravity biomechanics is not a question of psychodynamics any more but of space vectors. This is why Zivadinov talks about Krikaljov?s vector.

In the zero gravity ambient of the Noordung Biomechanics the body carries the possibility of transformation. Instead of talking of simple psychodynamics, we have to think about bodies as vectors. BODIES AS VECTORS. Any animal that transmits a disease-producing organism is named a vector. Vectors are carriers. Mass, speed, acceleration are typical vector dimensions that start to be characterised the orientation, path, and sum. The body starts to function as a vector at zero gravity; the body gains the absolute sum of intensity. The transformation of the actor's skeleton is the transformation of Biomechanics: inner bone substance used as food or fertiliser. These changes are described by algorithms ? algorithms of the changes in human bones at zero gravity. Algorithm is any special way of solving a certain kind of mathematical problem, just as -- LIVE is a very simple computer program. LIVE is just a special algorithm.

Gravity pulls on all bodies in the Earth?s sphere toward the Earth?s centre, in the zero gravity ambient the force by which every mass attracts and is attracted by every other mass is 0. In such condition are for example: artificial Earth?s satellites, objects artificially put into orbit around the Earth and astronauts, as well as all the objects in a spacecraft when it travels in outer space. Under the centrifugal force that rotates, bodies move away from the centre of rotation, and therefore Earth?s gravitation is abolished. The bodies in the spacecraft, as well as the objects from a drop of dust to a drop of water are without weight, they are weightless. The fluids are than not pouring out, and you can think about this problem in terms of pissing or space craft fuel. It is interesting that in 1966 it was a common statement that the research of behaving and living in the zero gravity ambient has no physiological and biological effects on the human body.

In Noordung Biomechanics both the theatre and performance meet the Real. If we think about the theatre as symbolic space (where the actor represents ) and about performance as the process connected with reality (where the actor articulates his or her own non-mediated reality), than the Noordung actor transformed in an astronaut is the real of the theatre and performance. The ?real? bodies invaded the zero gravity space presenting a vertiginous display of their very depthlessness. One should bear in mind that the Real, the indivisible remainder that resists its reflective idealisation, is not "a kind of external kernel which idealisation, symbolisation is unable to swallow, to internalise, but the irrationality, so to speak the madness of the very founding gesture of idealisation/symbolisation.? Here we can extend this idea to a broader concept of human experience in relation to the critical quality of art, as well as the anti-rational qualities of science and modern technology, referring to Merleau-Ponty?s Phenomenology of Perception: ?All my knowledge from the world, even my scientific knowledge, is gained from my particular point of view, or from some experience of the world without which the symbols of science would be meaningless. The whole universe of science is built upon the world as directly experienced, and if we want to subject science itself to rigorous scrutiny and arrive at a precise assessment of its meaning, we must begin by reawakening the basic experience of the world of which science is the order expression.? The practical dimension is found in the emphasis on experience, the practical impact includes first and foremost a strengthening of experience, centred in personal subjectivity. There is a demand for a ?subjectivity? which perceives the contradictions within the social body because this subjectivity explores its own desires and drives. From now on art will be the highest form of critique, because it can fulfil this task in the most powerful ways. ?To return to the things themselves is to return to that world which proceeds knowledge, of which knowledge always speaks, and in relation to which every scientific schematisation is an abstract and derivative sign-language, as is the geography in relation to the country-side in which we learnt beforehand what a forest, a prairie or river is.? One could say that art offers a privileged position to experience an alternative countryside or one could conjecture that art is giving a privileged position in relation to experiencing alternative wilderness or terrain.

I stated that cyberspace is based upon or concentrates on the cybernaut - the subject in cyberspace. Cybernauts are perceived as kinetic urban subjects. His or her entry into cyberspace is strikingly kinetic.

The spatiality of cyberspace exists to permit bodily mobility and, the human becomes the dramatic centre, the active agent in a spatiotemporal reality. From a description of the subject?s passage through the world, a passage marked by continuos processes of orientation and adaptation, the phenomenology of perception is transformed into a transcendent evaluation of human experience and its logical consequent, human control. This is a danger of which Merleau-Ponty seems cognisant when he writes: ?Mobility, then, is not, as it were, a handmaid of consciousness, transporting the body to that point in space of which we have formed a representation beforehand. In order that we may be able to move our body towards an object, the object must first exist for it, our body must not belong to the realm of the in-itself?. The physical engagement of the body enforces a simultaneous construction of the subject and world. In relation to cyberspace, according to Bukatman, normal space is now the site of alienation. Thus the duality between the mind and the body is superseded in a new formation that presents the mind as itself embodied.

In 2000, Slovenian artist, Marko Peljhan took his auto-sufficient lab (an autonomous and not fixed station of people, instruments and technology) to Australia; different participants from all over the world on absolutely free motivated ground joined the project. In the lab with not fixed place and structure, they live, produce energy and research auto sufficient modules of existing and researching technological data transmitted via satellite, radio waves, etc. The Macrolab technology, home made technology using radio transmitters, satellite decoders and etc. , research the production and distribution of information, meaning, errors and action.

The mentioned structures do not construct eternal buildings (the Eternal City) but movements and environments and what is most important the re-instatement and re-definition of the category of the public/agents/actors/survivors. It is the account, if I make reference to Marko Peljhan Macrolab of the restoration of physical contacts and orientations in the environment and much more. All these projects are in the direct opposition to any effect of realism in the city but they develop strategies of absolute fictionalisation of the city. This is true also when we think of Metelkova. Metelkova is a subversion of the city, its complete negative structure and its fictional traumatic cancer paradigm.

The Italian philosopher Mario Perniola speaks of simultaneity and transition in space, these projects are not hierarchically or temporally arranged and finalised. Even more we move from physical to the mental structured space and then as on a Moebius strip we find ourselves in the traumatically real, socio-political urban society of Metelkova or absolutely fictionalised and virtualised space of the NSK state in Time. At the same time with Dragan Zivadinov project and as well Peljhan Macrolab we are pointing to the direction of the increasingly telematic relations of the city which in the nineties operates with de-materialised information, the structural fluidity of communication and with de-territorialized public or agency.

Marina Grzinic Mauhler (
is doctor of philosophy and works as researcher at the Institute of Philosophy at the ZRC SAZU (Scientific and Research Center of the Slovenian Academy of Science and Art) in Ljubljana. She also works as a freelance media theorist, art critic and curator. Marina Grzinic has been involved with video art since 1982. In collaboration with Aina Smid she has produced more than 30 video art projects, a short film, numerous video and media installations, Internet websites and an interactive CD-ROM (ZKM, Karlsruhe, Germany). Marina Grzinic has published hundreds of articles and essays and 5 books, including In a Line for Virtual Bread. Time, Space, the Subject and New Media in a Year 2000, Ljubljana 1996 and Zagreb 1999. In the year 2000 two of her essays were published, one for MIT Press and the other for Ablex Company: Grzinic, ?Exposure Time, the Aura, and Telerobotics? in The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet, ed. Ken Goldberg (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000) and Grzinic, ?Strategies of Visualisation and the Aesthetics of Video in the New Europe? in Culture and Technology in the New Europe: Civic Discourse in Transformation in Post-Communist Nations, ed. Laura Lengel (London: Ablex Publishing Company, 2000). Her last book is FICTION RECONSTRUCTED EASTERN EUROPE, POST-SOCIALISM and THE RETRO-AVANT-GARDE (Vienna: Edition SELENE in collaboration with Springerin, Vienna, 2000;

Cf. Marina Grzinic, ?A city with strong underground activities in the past? in: 18 artists, 18 cities, catalogue, published by Buro des Cultural City Network, Graz 1999.
Cf. Marina Grzinic, ?Strategies of Virtualisation of the City?, in: Urbanaria, SCCA ? Ljubljana 1994.
Cf. Michael Wimmer, Cultural Policy in Slovenia, European Programme of National Policy Reviews, Council of Europe, CC--CULT (96) 22B), 1996
Cf. Marina Grzinic, ?Dragan Zivadinov Noordung Cosmokinetic Cabinet Theater? in: Fama, No.1, Frakcija & Maska & Dance7, Munchen 2000,
Cf. Scott Bukatman, Terminal Identity, Duke University Press, Durham and London 1993 pp. 18-19, and pp. 150-160. I am extensively relying on and referring to Bukatman's writings in Terminal Identity.
Cf. Jean Baudrillard, Simulations, Semiotext (e), New York 1983, p. 124.
Cf. Timothy Leary, ?The Cyber-Punk: The Individual as Reality Pilot?, in: L. McCaffery (Ed.), Storming the Reality Studio, Duke Press, Durham 1992, p. 252.
Cf. Slavoj Zizek, The Indivisible Remainder, Verso, London and New York 1996, pp. 51-52.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Phenomenology of Perception, preface., p. XI. Ibid. Ibid., p.133.