Marina Grzinic, Ljubljana
Metelkova City in Ljubljana City and Other Projects: Actions in Zones
Metelkova is the name of the street in Ljubljana, Slovenia, where until
1991, the army barracks complex of the so called former Yugoslav army
resided. After the 10 days war in Slovenia in June 1991 the Yugoslav
army had to leave Slovenia. The new generation of underground hard core
punk activists and independent artists and groups asked the City Council
of Ljubljana in 1991 to give this empty military complex to the independent
art and culture organisations of Ljubljana. After promising to do so,
the Ljubljana City Council secretly started to destroy the complex with
the goal to build a commercial centre instead. The art and cultural
activists, intellectuals and artists therefore squatted in the place
that is still a site of battle between the independent art and cultural
scene and the Ljubljana City Council.
First Metelkova was run by the association or a large group of artists
and activists called Network or Action Committee for Metelkova. This
net established a unique demand for a different restructuring of our
social life and local cultural world in the begging of the nineties
in Ljubljana. The Net was a programme, a mobilisation of artists and
above all the demand for making architectural/urban arrangements and
social/cultural alterations in the city of Ljubljana in the future.
It is known that the Ljubljana City Council cut water and electricity
in 1993 trying to prevent the cultural programs and trying to force
the activists, intellectuals and artists to leave the squatted Metelkova
place. Today Metelkova centre bears the name of Metelkova city as a
powerful sign of the historical facts and battles with the City Council
and as a cynically powerful sign of its proper position.
The process of establish Metelkova City was not the action of an unknown
?crowd?, but an act of re-articulation of space by a large group of
artists and activists who endeavoured to materialise different systems
of culture(s) in the city of Ljubljana, and as well as, to emphasise
the possibility of revitalising and integrating existing subculture
or alternative systems and create new also (dis)- functional systems
of cultural and social action in Ljubljana.
The Metelkova city can be perceived as a powerful sign of the new distribution
of meaning to the so-called voids in the modern cities of today. Ljubljana
is today a capital town that is totalized with a process of a middle
class formal architectural purification and which shows signs of the
most upgrading historical and inter geographical amnesia, where the
things, places, facts, structures are forgotten after a minute. It is
very easy to live in Ljubljana and therefore even easier to symbolically
As was told in a lecture by Marjetica Potrc, architect and sculptor
from Ljubljana (at her solo presentation at the Gallery Skuc, Ljubljana
in March 2000) it is possible to detect in the old historical city centres
(in Ljubljana, but as well as in Munster, Vienna or Munchen, etc.),
the so called empty zones or voids ? complex structures of empty buildings,
or areas in the city without the formal past and designed map location.
These symbolically structured empty zones are the bearers of surplus
meaning. This can be perceived in a difference to the eighties where
the meaning of the European historical cities was produced and displayed
by beautiful architecture or known historical buildings and places.
The same but opposite process is going on in the so called Third world,
in South America, Africa, etc. The favelas in Latin America, for example
in Brazil, present wildly growing periphery city zones without formal
structures or any kind of infrastructures, but the favelas are those
which bring and generate meaning for real life, with their almost baroque
rest of dirtiness and wildly organised existentially.
The cancer process of the favelas, methastasing uncontrolled in the
space and with deregulated infrastructures or no structures, are the
new zones of meaning, errors, battles of surviving and entropy.
In the cities, especially in the so called historical cities of the
old humanistic Europe, these zones, voids are generated and produced
and on the other side also very skilfully hidden by city authority;
the empty zones or I called them a-topical city topos or voids are not
located (they are a-located locations) in the official maps of the city,
as they exist in a invisible way, erased from official maps of the city;
the city administration feel ashamed and at the same time terrified
by this new voids and their meaning of new political formless forms
in the city.
In the city of Metelkova Joze Barsi (artist from Ljubljana)installed
in January 2000 a toilet in the ?public space? of Metelkova city, a
toilet as monument. This also means that the functionality of cities
and their formal spaces changed radically. So we can detect a process
of re-location of the formation of a-topical punctum in the city , and
this has a little to do with presentation but has a lot to do with re-location
and re-articulation of the voids in the urban space.
We have to pose a question that is not only effectively incorporated
and bound to the psychical space of the city, but which represent the
condition sine qua non of each and every paradigm of the urban in the
nineties: What is the new urban monument of the nineties? According
to Mary Jane Jacob, an American critic and theorist who wrote in the
nineties an exhaustive study on public art in Chicago with special emphasis
on the activity of the Sculpture Chicago organisation and its last project
Culture in Action, I can argue that the new urban monument within the
Specific Slovenian context has changed and it is increasingly assuming
the image of the moment and movement. Metelkova is one of such moment
With Metelkova a trajectory was made towards social topicality from
the passive arrangement of buildings in the public environment or the
simple renewal of the physical environment to processes of living and
producing, that can be coined, referring to Mary Jane Jacob, as ?Culture
in action?. More than representing a form of expanding the audience
in the urban ethos, Metelkova replaces it - the entire specific community
of Metelkova is at the same time a creator and user, a city within a
Metelkova can be seen also as a sign against the symbolic institute
of the city defined as dormitory. I can say that the city due to its
socialist context has been sleeping too long and as well as its institutions.
Metelkova refers to the city urban dilemmas and to the city as an open
Metelkova can be useful as a paradigm in a context of the Slovenian
cultural policy in general. Analysing the methods, political decisions
and actions of the city administration concerning relationships between
the project and the different artistic, cultural, political and social
structures (institutions, associations and media) in Slovenia. Among
different analysis one of the most important was to establish a parallel
between the project and the Reports on Slovenian Cultural Policy undertaken
by a team of European experts and written by Michael Wimmer. This excellent
and archetypal report by European experts drew a very precise picture
of the characteristics of the so called cultural policy situation in
Slovenia. The first conclusion reached was that Slovenia had no real
cultural policy, (i.e. one with a clear programme platform). The second
most important characteristic was the ?over - institutionalisation?
of the field of culture in Slovenia. The report concluded that Slovenian
cultural and artistic life is largely ruled and consumed entirely by
national cultural institutions in which in most of the cases employees?
appointment is for life. In this way the institutions present a specific
but hierarchically powerful element in the way culture is perceived,
distributed, relocated and practised in Slovenia. The role of the Ministry
of Culture was perceived in the report as largely existing to satisfy
the wishes of the national cultural institutions and their directors.
The report also highlighted the completely chaotic relationship between
the city level and the level of the Slovenian state in dealing, developing
and realising projects in the field of culture.
It is not difficult to perceive how it was possible for the municipal
administration to develop their authoritarian methods against Metelkova.
The position of the alternative groups from the eighties was also exaggerated.
They were ?demonised? and portrayed as a real threat to the historical
city, but this was nothing more than a carnivalesque game. The European
Report comments that an independent Slovenia succeeded in completely
paralysing the ?alternative arts culture? that had enjoyed such a fruitful
existence in the eighties.
Another tendency or direction was individuated by the experts in the
cultural and artistic strategies supported by the Slovenian Ministry
of Culture. A turn towards the direction of traditional art and culture
or what is understood as the high European humanistic tradition in art
and culture. For Slovenia this represents a radical turning point. This
tendency -- is radically different from the flourishing modern and experimental
art and cultural productions in the Slovenia of the eighties. According
to the European report, the imaginary humanist art tradition is the
way in which art and culture (i.e. against modern and experimental production)
is redirect in Slovenia.
Deep in the socialist period the largest public project in the urban
surroundings were the socialist parades and celebrations of anniversaries
of victories and party congress. And who says than that socialism did
not have its own interactive mass media forerunners, and this moreover
in real time!? A whole history of the Ljubljana alternative or underground
scene came through the eighties. By consciously entering non-institutional
environments (underground?s clubs) and by encouraging a whole line of
artistic and social practices (graffiti was at that time, in the eighties
still a language of the stratified urban community and the voice of
marginal groups) and investigating interior and exterior public environments,
it opened a whole range of issues, that is possible to re-address as
part of the topic of talking cities. The underground movement recognised
the city of Ljubljana as urbs when it first experienced that behind
the completely topologically closed city structure, explosions of artistic
production and social movements would burst forth. The eighties also
confirmed that we will have to face the fact that Ljubljana deserves
the title of an urban topos, because it is within the underground that
the ?coming out? of Ljubljana homosexuals and the constitution of gay
culture in the nineties took place.
In reference to this history we cannot overlook the projects in private
residencies (the performance named The Retro-Garde Hinkemmann Happening
b the Theatre of the Sisters of Scipio Nasica took place in 1984 in
a private apartment , and as well the exhibition Was ist kunst by the
group IRWIN in 1984 was displayed in a private space) -- projects with
which the public assumed its so skilfully concealed private image and
vice versa. In the post-socialist nineties the idea of an omnipresent
and at the same time absent telematic society was virtualised by the
Irwin NSK Sate in Time project. Firstly the NSK State in Time implies
the absence of any kind of physical territory and secondly, the NSK
State in time operates with the virtualisation and transference of national
elements in a wholly temporal form in which the cause and effect are
not spatial but linked through information. And, the public within this
?state? has attained a wholly new autonomy and a new form of segregation
at the same time (instead of a ticket, it was necessary to arrange a
passport and obtain a valid visa to enter the NSK state in Berlin in
1994 in the Berlin Volksbuhne).
Here we can see the elements of the so-called post ? socialist decontrolling
of space, a step that can follow the so called post-modernist decontrolling
of space, as explained by Peter Weibel. Weibel places the post-modern
decontrolling of space opposite to the so called modernist fetish of
totality and supervision of artistic output.
For him in the first degree of the modernist project the whole idea
of space is subsumed in the transfer from one social space to another.
The second degree is the state in which most (post)avant-garde art is
today : external operations become the internal structures of the work
themselves. And the third degree is the one which most radically sets
the comprehension and operation of parameters such as the city, position,
presentation and public in culture and art. Weibel calls this degree
an observer/viewer oriented approach. In contrast to the first two approaches
which, as Weibel stressed, throughout demonstrate that it is the social
context which constructs the meaning of a work, it is the observer/viewer
oriented approach that no longer shows, but simply incorporates or integrates
the social context into the construct of the work itself. The post-socialist
step in decontrolling space is going even further develops strategies
of absolute fictionalisation of the city.
I would like to give some other examples, as well from Ljubljana or
by artists from Ljubljana, besides the already discusses Metelkova city
in Ljubljana, and the work of Marjetica Potrc and Joze Barsi:
*Dragan Zivadinov?s Noordung Cosmokinetic Cabinet Theatre
* Macrolab by Marko Peljhan at
*Irwin - NSK State in time at
On December 15 1999, Dragan Zivadinov?s Noordung Cosmokinetic Cabinet
Theatre performed a parabolic art project named Noordung Biomechanics
in the Russian cosmonaut training aircraft IL ? 76MDK, registered RA
78770, in the skies above Moscow (at 6660 m); the aircraft was operated
by the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training facility, which is based in Star
City, just outside Moscow.
Just a quick note: theatre director Dragan Zivadinov conceived the Retrogarde
Theatre in the early 1980?s (as part of the Neue Slowenische Kunst movement)
and it went through several stages of metamorphosis. The theatre was
in the mid 1980?s re-named the RED PILOT COSMOKINETIC THEATRE by Zivadinov
and in the 1990's it took the name of THE NOORDUNG COSMOKINETIC THEATRE.
Dragan Zivadinov Noordung Cosmokinetic Cabinet Theatre performed its
Noordung Biomechanics at zero gravity, researching revolutionary changes,
which take place in the human body in a situation of a weightless theatre.
Zivadinov Noordung Biomechanics analyses contemporary theatre and performance
phenomena through - in relation to or against - the plethora of new
technological and electronic means. The investigation is developed through
an intersection of theatre, body, mobility, subjectivity, and mechanics,
with more general social phenomena and their realities and especially
with contemporary theories of physiological changes of human skeleton
at zero gravity. Zivadinov inspects the kinetical conceptualisations
of new technologies and elaborates on issues of simulation, simulacrum
and the cyborgs/cybernetics/cybernauts. The contemporary time-and-space
paradigm takes on a central role in his Biomechanics Theatre, and so
does the problem of the ?subject? as an actor and performer in the electronic
With Zivadinov, the actor has become a terminal, final location of numerous
networks, placed within global structures of data webs, into the current
world of cybernetic space. In the weightless theatre actors are not
merely theorised, but also fabricated by means of (spacecraft) machines.
In his seminal book Terminal Identity, Scott Bukatman defined terminal
culture or cyberspace as the era in which the digital has substituted
the tactile. He further argues (using Jean Baudrillard?s terms) that
physical action in terminal situations ? and what else is the zero gravity
situation - returns as a strategy of communication, combining tactile
and tactical simulation. The visual and rhetorical recognition of terminal
space therefore prepares the subject for a more direct, bodily engagement
(Bukatman). Moreover, cyberspace is grounded upon or concentrates on
the cybernaut. Timothy Leary reminds us that; ?The word cybernetic-person
or cybernaut returns us to the original meaning of ?pilot? and puts
the self-reliant person back in the loop?. The construction of a new
cyberspatial subject thus relies upon a narration of perception followed
by kinesis (Bukatman), piloting, mobile distancing, travelling, gravitating.
This is exactly the recapitulation of the development of the subject/actor
generated by Dragan Zivadinov?s process of physiognomic reconstitution
at zero gravity. Similarly to Zivadinov, or vice versa, in order to
constitute electronic space as a paradigm or a matrix that is susceptible
to an act of comprehension, writers such as Jean Baudrillard or William
Gibson also rely on metaphors and actions of human perception based
We can say that Dragan Zivadinov?s preliminary emphasis on the primary
activity of perception and mechanics mobility corresponds to the paradigmatic
strategies of visualisation, which are shared by narrative, scientific,
and philosophical elaboration of the electronic space and at the same
time transcends it.
Biomechanics refers to a process that combines forms meaning life with
mechanics; Biomechanics is about motion and action of forces on bodies.
The word Biomechanics can not be found in the Webster?s New World dictionary,
but is strongly present in the Russian tradition from the theatre to
physiology. In this context, I can state that what is for the developed
?West? connected with technology and transformation, in the terminology
of genetic engineering, the Russians know as Biomechanics. It is possible
in fact to think about Biomechanics as the new artistic genetic engineering.
The primary domain of Biomechanics is physiology, that is the science
dealing with the functions and vital processes of living organisms and
mechanical movements. Biomechanics, as first researched by Leonardo
da Vinci (1452- 1519), is used today widely in military medicine. Vsevolod
Emiljevich Mejerholjd (1874 ?1942) with his ideas of the Revolutionary
theatre, where the theatre is perceived as a mobile space with constructivists
elements, introduced biomechanical elements in the theatre as sites
of dramatically performed actions.
According to multiple references to the social, the political and the
physiological, Zivadinov differentiates three stages in Biomechanics,
with respective technological gadgets, political references, and body
For Zivadinov it is possible to distinguish 3 periods of biomechanics
and activity in space or a production of a simulated space and agency:
Historical Biomechanics (until the beginning of the Second World War)
Telepresence Biomechanics (which started with the Second World War,
and, I will add, is connected with an increasing expansion of research
in rocket technology and astronautics) Cosmic Biomechanics (inaugurated
by Zivadinov?s parabolic art project Noordung Biomechanics)
I will draw a parallel between these three periods in Biomechanics and
the differentiation and continuities between the optical, electronic
and digital technologies and images; I will tie them to transversal
and horizontal connections between different technological, historical
and scientific periods and discoveries. The historical Biomechanics
can be seen as the period of optical technologies; radio is the most
important medium and the body of an actor participating in historical
Biomechanic performances is the body of an acrobat. In the Telepresence
Biomechanics television became the central apparatus, and it is thus
not difficult to see the connection with our proposed electronic technologies
and images period. The actor changes from an acrobat into an experimental
body (possible examples, precisely in the order I put them, are: Cindy
Sherman, Dump Type, Stelarc, Orlan). In the case of Cindy Sherman, the
body is a screen, used for all sorts of changes, for the complete masquerading
of identity; a Dumb Type actor is not a theatre character, it is a life
character; the leading actor in Dumb Type was an Aids bomb, he himself
was the reservoir of the virus; he was the virus and the potential form
of illness that is always continually reminding us of his virus potentiality
that waits to become a reality. Stelarc is the potential cyborg (muscles
manipulated through the Internet), Orlan on the other hand a pre-final
form of a cyborg, a modern Frankenstein, that reconsiders cosmetology
much more seriously than cosmology.
If art poses, according to Bukatman, the enigma of the body, than the
enigma of technique poses the enigma of art.
Computer, that is ?intelligent television ?for Zivadinov is the path
to the third stage. Cosmic Biomechanics implies the politics of the
digital machine; this is a path from the speaking head linearity TV
to 3D living form at zero space gravity. Noordung Biomechanics Theatre
is all about science of motion and action of forces on bodies. The project
is about different bodies in parallel worlds. Physical bodies, sexual
bodies, social bodies, media bodies and political bodies. Each territory
produces a border body. In Cosmic Biomechanics the change is from muscle
to skeleton. The Russian astronaut Krikaljov who spent more than a year
in cosmos in a zero gravity ambient, showed this clearly: he experienced,
according to Zivadinov, changes in his bones and skeleton structure.
In Cosmic Biomechanics the actors are cosmonauts. And as Zivadinov argues,
at zero gravity biomechanics is not a question of psychodynamics any
more but of space vectors. This is why Zivadinov talks about Krikaljov?s
In the zero gravity ambient of the Noordung Biomechanics the body carries
the possibility of transformation. Instead of talking of simple psychodynamics,
we have to think about bodies as vectors. BODIES AS VECTORS. Any animal
that transmits a disease-producing organism is named a vector. Vectors
are carriers. Mass, speed, acceleration are typical vector dimensions
that start to be characterised the orientation, path, and sum. The body
starts to function as a vector at zero gravity; the body gains the absolute
sum of intensity. The transformation of the actor's skeleton is the
transformation of Biomechanics: inner bone substance used as food or
fertiliser. These changes are described by algorithms ? algorithms of
the changes in human bones at zero gravity. Algorithm is any special
way of solving a certain kind of mathematical problem, just as -- LIVE
is a very simple computer program. LIVE is just a special algorithm.
Gravity pulls on all bodies in the Earth?s sphere toward the Earth?s
centre, in the zero gravity ambient the force by which every mass attracts
and is attracted by every other mass is 0. In such condition are for
example: artificial Earth?s satellites, objects artificially put into
orbit around the Earth and astronauts, as well as all the objects in
a spacecraft when it travels in outer space. Under the centrifugal force
that rotates, bodies move away from the centre of rotation, and therefore
Earth?s gravitation is abolished. The bodies in the spacecraft, as well
as the objects from a drop of dust to a drop of water are without weight,
they are weightless. The fluids are than not pouring out, and you can
think about this problem in terms of pissing or space craft fuel. It
is interesting that in 1966 it was a common statement that the research
of behaving and living in the zero gravity ambient has no physiological
and biological effects on the human body.
In Noordung Biomechanics both the theatre and performance meet the Real.
If we think about the theatre as symbolic space (where the actor represents
) and about performance as the process connected with reality (where
the actor articulates his or her own non-mediated reality), than the
Noordung actor transformed in an astronaut is the real of the theatre
and performance. The ?real? bodies invaded the zero gravity space presenting
a vertiginous display of their very depthlessness. One should bear in
mind that the Real, the indivisible remainder that resists its reflective
idealisation, is not "a kind of external kernel which idealisation,
symbolisation is unable to swallow, to internalise, but the irrationality,
so to speak the madness of the very founding gesture of idealisation/symbolisation.?
Here we can extend this idea to a broader concept of human experience
in relation to the critical quality of art, as well as the anti-rational
qualities of science and modern technology, referring to Merleau-Ponty?s
Phenomenology of Perception: ?All my knowledge from the world, even
my scientific knowledge, is gained from my particular point of view,
or from some experience of the world without which the symbols of science
would be meaningless. The whole universe of science is built upon the
world as directly experienced, and if we want to subject science itself
to rigorous scrutiny and arrive at a precise assessment of its meaning,
we must begin by reawakening the basic experience of the world of which
science is the order expression.? The practical dimension is found in
the emphasis on experience, the practical impact includes first and
foremost a strengthening of experience, centred in personal subjectivity.
There is a demand for a ?subjectivity? which perceives the contradictions
within the social body because this subjectivity explores its own desires
and drives. From now on art will be the highest form of critique, because
it can fulfil this task in the most powerful ways. ?To return to the
things themselves is to return to that world which proceeds knowledge,
of which knowledge always speaks, and in relation to which every scientific
schematisation is an abstract and derivative sign-language, as is the
geography in relation to the country-side in which we learnt beforehand
what a forest, a prairie or river is.? One could say that art offers
a privileged position to experience an alternative countryside or one
could conjecture that art is giving a privileged position in relation
to experiencing alternative wilderness or terrain.
I stated that cyberspace is based upon or concentrates on the cybernaut
- the subject in cyberspace. Cybernauts are perceived as kinetic urban
subjects. His or her entry into cyberspace is strikingly kinetic.
The spatiality of cyberspace exists to permit bodily mobility and, the
human becomes the dramatic centre, the active agent in a spatiotemporal
reality. From a description of the subject?s passage through the world,
a passage marked by continuos processes of orientation and adaptation,
the phenomenology of perception is transformed into a transcendent evaluation
of human experience and its logical consequent, human control. This
is a danger of which Merleau-Ponty seems cognisant when he writes: ?Mobility,
then, is not, as it were, a handmaid of consciousness, transporting
the body to that point in space of which we have formed a representation
beforehand. In order that we may be able to move our body towards an
object, the object must first exist for it, our body must not belong
to the realm of the in-itself?. The physical engagement of the body
enforces a simultaneous construction of the subject and world. In relation
to cyberspace, according to Bukatman, normal space is now the site of
alienation. Thus the duality between the mind and the body is superseded
in a new formation that presents the mind as itself embodied.
In 2000, Slovenian artist, Marko Peljhan took his auto-sufficient lab
(an autonomous and not fixed station of people, instruments and technology)
to Australia; different participants from all over the world on absolutely
free motivated ground joined the project. In the lab with not fixed
place and structure, they live, produce energy and research auto sufficient
modules of existing and researching technological data transmitted via
satellite, radio waves, etc. The Macrolab technology, home made technology
using radio transmitters, satellite decoders and etc. , research the
production and distribution of information, meaning, errors and action.
The mentioned structures do not construct eternal buildings (the Eternal
City) but movements and environments and what is most important the
re-instatement and re-definition of the category of the public/agents/actors/survivors.
It is the account, if I make reference to Marko Peljhan Macrolab of
the restoration of physical contacts and orientations in the environment
and much more. All these projects are in the direct opposition to any
effect of realism in the city but they develop strategies of absolute
fictionalisation of the city. This is true also when we think of Metelkova.
Metelkova is a subversion of the city, its complete negative structure
and its fictional traumatic cancer paradigm.
The Italian philosopher Mario Perniola speaks of simultaneity and transition
in space, these projects are not hierarchically or temporally arranged
and finalised. Even more we move from physical to the mental structured
space and then as on a Moebius strip we find ourselves in the traumatically
real, socio-political urban society of Metelkova or absolutely fictionalised
and virtualised space of the NSK state in Time. At the same time with
Dragan Zivadinov project and as well Peljhan Macrolab we are pointing
to the direction of the increasingly telematic relations of the city
which in the nineties operates with de-materialised information, the
structural fluidity of communication and with de-territorialized public
Marina Grzinic Mauhler (email@example.com)
is doctor of philosophy and works as researcher at the Institute of
Philosophy at the ZRC SAZU (Scientific and Research Center of the Slovenian
Academy of Science and Art) in Ljubljana. She also works as a freelance
media theorist, art critic and curator. Marina Grzinic has been involved
with video art since 1982. In collaboration with Aina Smid she has produced
more than 30 video art projects, a short film, numerous video and media
installations, Internet websites and an interactive CD-ROM (ZKM, Karlsruhe,
Germany). Marina Grzinic has published hundreds of articles and essays
and 5 books, including In a Line for Virtual Bread. Time, Space, the
Subject and New Media in a Year 2000, Ljubljana 1996 and Zagreb 1999.
In the year 2000 two of her essays were published, one for MIT Press
and the other for Ablex Company: Grzinic, ?Exposure Time, the Aura,
and Telerobotics? in The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology
in the Age of the Internet, ed. Ken Goldberg (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT
Press, 2000) and Grzinic, ?Strategies of Visualisation and the Aesthetics
of Video in the New Europe? in Culture and Technology in the New Europe:
Civic Discourse in Transformation in Post-Communist Nations, ed. Laura
Lengel (London: Ablex Publishing Company, 2000). Her last book is FICTION
RECONSTRUCTED EASTERN EUROPE, POST-SOCIALISM and THE RETRO-AVANT-GARDE
(Vienna: Edition SELENE in collaboration with Springerin, Vienna, 2000;
Cf. Marina Grzinic, ?A city with strong underground activities in the
past? in: 18 artists, 18 cities, catalogue, published by Buro des Cultural
City Network, Graz 1999.
Cf. Marina Grzinic, ?Strategies of Virtualisation of the City?, in:
Urbanaria, SCCA ? Ljubljana 1994.
Cf. Michael Wimmer, Cultural Policy in Slovenia, European Programme
of National Policy Reviews, Council of Europe, CC--CULT (96) 22B), 1996
Cf. Marina Grzinic, ?Dragan Zivadinov Noordung Cosmokinetic Cabinet
Theater? in: Fama, No.1, Frakcija & Maska & Dance7, Munchen 2000,
Cf. Scott Bukatman, Terminal Identity, Duke University Press, Durham
and London 1993 pp. 18-19, and pp. 150-160. I am extensively relying
on and referring to Bukatman's writings in Terminal Identity.
Cf. Jean Baudrillard, Simulations, Semiotext (e), New York 1983, p.
Cf. Timothy Leary, ?The Cyber-Punk: The Individual as Reality Pilot?,
in: L. McCaffery (Ed.), Storming the Reality Studio, Duke Press, Durham
1992, p. 252.
Cf. Slavoj Zizek, The Indivisible Remainder, Verso, London and New York
1996, pp. 51-52.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Phenomenology of Perception, preface., p. XI.
Ibid. Ibid., p.133.